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仁爱英语 资源共享:介词复习

3.from, since  (1)  from表示“等时间的起点”,作“从……”解,多用于“from…to/till…”中。  You can come anytime from Monday to Friday.周一至周五你什么时间来都行。  The exam will start from 9:00am. 考试将从上午九点开始。  ①from“从……(开始)”未必持续到现在,如:  from 1995 to 1998.从1995年到1998年。  而since是指“自从……以来一直持续到现在”  ②since一般只与现在完成时连用,而from不受此限。  (2) since表示“自从……以来(直到现在)”  He has been away from home since 1973.他自从1973年就离开了家乡。  We have known each other since ten years ago.我们十年前就认识了。  for与since表示一段时间,但for与时间段连用,而since与时间点连用。  如for two hours(持续)两小时;since last week自从上周直到现在  4.before, by, till, until  (1) before指“在……之前”  Please come before ten o’clock.请10点以前来。  The meeting will end after 3:00pm. 会议将在下午三点后结束。  表示“在……以前”时,before与by基本可通用。但by还有“截至……为止”之意,此时可与完成时连用,而before一般不与完成时连用。如:  How many models have you made by the end of last month?  截至上月底你做了多少个模型?  (2) by指“不迟于,到……时为止,在……以前”  I must finish my homework by lunch.午饭前我必须做完作业。  We had learned over 1000 words by the end of last term.   到上学期末为止,我们已经学了1000多个单词了。  (3) tell (until) “直到……为止”  You must wait for him till tomorrow.你必须一直等到他明天。  He didn’t come back until twelve o’clock last night.他昨晚下到12点才回来。  在肯定句中,till (until)必须与延续动词连用。若与点动词连用,till (until)只能用于否定句中。
5.after,  in,  within  ①after表示“在……之后”,是before的反义词。  We’ll hold a party after dinner.晚餐后我们将举办晚会。  He got a cancer and died after a year.他患了癌症,一年后去世了。  I’ll phone you after 1 arrive.到达后我给你打电话。(after作连词)  ②within“在……时间之内”  I can finish it with an hour.我不需一小时就可把它做完。  比 较   after与in  ①after后可跟时间段,也可跟时间点,如after school(放学后),  而in后必须跟一段时间,如in an hour(一小时后)。  ②after既可用于将来时,也可用于过去时,而in只能用于将来时。  ③after既可作介词,又可作连词,而in只能作介词②in“在……时间之后”  I’ll arrive in an hour.我一小时后到达。  in与(二)表示“地点、方向”的介词:  1.in outside between, among  ①in表示“在……里面”,如:  what’s in the box? 盒子里是什么?  she put her book in the desk. 她把书放进了书桌。  ②outside指“在……外面”  there are many people outside the room.房间外有很多人。  what did your see outside the hall? 你在大厅外看见了什么?  ③between在……之间(指二者)  there is a hospital between the hotel and the post office.在宾馆与邮局之间有所医院。  the building stands between the park and the small river. 那栋建筑位于公园和小河之间。     between是指“在两者之间”,而among指“在多个之间”。  ④among在……之间(指三者以上)  “there is a thief among you.” the policeman shouted to the crowd.  警察向人群喊道:“你们中间有个小偷!”  he found his place among the crowd. 他在人群中找到了他的位置。within后都必须跟时间段。
          2.on, above, over, below, under  (1) on在……上面,表面相互接触。  there is an apple on the table. 桌上有一个苹果。  on the top of the hill, there is a flag. 山顶有一面旗子。  (2) above只表示“在……上方或位置高出……”,与below相对。  a plane flew above our heads.一架飞机从我们头上飞过。  the turners live above us. 特纳一家人住在我们的上面。  (3) over“在……正上方”,与under相对。  there is a bridge over the river.河上有一座桥。  the picture is hanging over the blackboard. 那张图挂在黑板的正上方。  (4) below在……下方,低于……  there are many flowers below the window.窗下有很多花。  her skirt reaches just below her knees.她的裙子刚到膝盖下。  (5) under在……正下方  they sat under a big tree, drinking.他们坐在一棵大树下喝酒。  what are you wearing under your coat? 你外套里面穿了什么?
3.near, by, beside  (1) near在……附近,与far相对  a hospital was built near the railway station.在火车站附近建了一所医院。  my hone is near he school. 我的家离学校很近。  (2) by = beside,靠近,在……旁边,比near距离更近    he just sat by/ beside me in the cinema.在电影院他就坐在我旁边。  he lay down beside the statuary. 他在雕像旁躺下了。

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