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仁爱英语 资源共享:speak, talk, say, tell的用法区别

speak, talk, say, tell的用法区别



这四个词的用法辨析是中考英语中考得最经常的同义词辨析之一。综观各省市的中考英语真题情况,我们发现,中考对这四个词的考查主要侧重于其用法差异和习惯表达方面的不同。因此,本文拟在这两个方面谈谈它们的具体用法和区别。

一、用法方面的区别

1. speak 强调单方的“说”或“讲”,一般用作不及物动词,要表示“对某人说(某事)”,可用 speak to [with] sb (about sth)。如:

Please speak more slowly. 请说慢一点。

I spoke to [with] the chairman about my idea. 我跟主席说了我的想法。

2. talk 强调双方“交谈”,一般用作不及物动词,表示“同某人谈论(某事)”,可用 talk to [with] sb (about sth)。如:

He was talking to [with] a friend. 他在同一位朋友谈话。

What are they talking about? 他们在谈论什么?

3. say 强调说话内容,一般用作及物动词。表示“对某人说”,可用 say to sb。如:

Did you say anything (to him)? 你(对他)说了些什么?

He said (that) he wanted to go. 他说他想去。 

注:以下句型值得注意:

据说他病了。

正:It is said that he is ill.

正:He is said to be ill.

4. tell 表示“告诉”,可接双宾语,双宾语易位时用介词 to 引出间接宾语。如:

I told him my name. 我把名字告诉了他。

He told his parents the good news. / He told the good news to his parents. 他把这个好消息告诉了他父母。

注:还可接不定式的复合结构作宾语。如:

Tell her to come at once. 叫她马上来。

He told the children not to play in the street. 他叫孩子们不要在街上玩。

另外,有时与介词 from 连用表示“区分”“辨别”等。如:

I cannot tell which is which. 我分不清哪个是哪个。

Can you tell true friends from false friends? 你能分清真假朋友吗?
二、习惯表达方面的区别

1. 表示“演说”“演讲”“发言”等,一般用 speak 。如:

Who is going to speak at the meeting? 谁将在会上发言?

2. 表示“讲故事”“说谎”等,一般用 tell。如:

He often tells us interesting stories. 他经常给我们讲有趣的故事。

3. 表示“说某种语言”,一般用 speak (及物)。如:

Do you speak French? 你会说法语吗?

4. 在某些搭配中,有时可有多种表达。如:

say [speak] a word 说句话

say [tell, speak] the truth 讲真话

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