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英语听力的题型以及解题的方法

英语听力的题型以及解题的方法很多,有应答理解、句子理解法、6-W听力应试法以及整体吸收法等。要想拿到高分,必须弄懂各种题型的解题方法和解题技巧。现笔者分别叙述如下:

一. 应答理解

应答句理解是指测试时提供具体的听力材料,一般多为疑问句,要求对听力材料做出应答。应答句一般分为交际用语应答和语法规则应答两种。例如:

选出你所听到句子的最佳答语。

A. All right. B. That”s all right.

C. Right. D. That”s right.

录音原稿:

Thanks for helping me.

精析:对别人的帮助表示感谢,其答语应为That”s all right,所以正确答案应选B项。

解题技巧:做应答句理解题时应结合英语的习惯表达法,因为习惯表达法是约定俗成的,所以一定要结合英语的语言本身的特征,不可用汉语的思维方式去解题。

二. 句子理解法

句子理解可以从句子中一些关键而难以理解的词语入手,先搞清楚它们的含义,再联系整个句子的意思来理解,也可以联系上下文,结合文章内容来弄懂句子的引申意义和比喻意义。例如:

单句理解:从每小题A、B、C、D四个选项中选出与你所听到的句子意义相同或相近的句子,每个句子读一遍。

1. A. My uncle telephoned me.

B. My uncle spoke to me.

C. Someone told me of my uncle.

D. I got a letter from my uncle.

2. A. Neither of the Browns can sing very well.

B. The Browns are both good at singing.

C. Mr Brown doesn”t sing so well as his wife.

D. Mr Brown is a better singer than his wife.

录音原稿:

1. I heard from my uncle yesterday.

2. Mr Brown sings very well but his wife doesn”t.

精析:句子理解可以从句子的关键词或难以理解的词入手。第1题的录音稿中heard from意为“收到……的来信”,所以第1题所提供的选项D与录音稿同义。第2题的录音稿的意思为布朗先生会唱歌,但她的妻子不会唱,显然正确答案应选D项。

解题技巧:单句理解是听力考查中的必考题,可以通过同义词、同义词组的替换得出答案。

三. 5-W及1-H听力法

5-W及1-H听力法是英语中的what(什么),when(什么时候),where(什么地方),who(什么人),why(为什么)和how(怎么样)等6个单词的缩写。该方法适用于听短文理解的题型。利用这种方法做听力时,要从以下6个方面去思考:

what––––什么事件

when––––事件发生的时间

where––––事件发生的地点

who––––事件发展中的有关人物

why––––事件发生的原因

how––––问多少及事件如何发生等

听力测试时如果按照以上6个方面去理解所听的短文,找到答案就更加容易了。例如:

短文理解。本题有一篇短文,请先听短文,再根据短文内容和所提问题选择正确答案。

1. How old is Tom?

A. Eight. B. Six. C. Nine.

2. What does Tom always do on Sundays?

A. He always plays basketball.

B. He always studies at home.

C. He always cleans his room.

3. Did Tom make his hands dirty last Monday?

A. No, he didn”t. B. Maybe he did. C. Yes, he did.

4. What does Miss King do?

A. She”s an English teacher.

B. She”s a maths teacher.

C. She”s a PE teacher.

5. Which of Tom”s hand was dirtier?

A. His right hand. B. His left hand.

C. His both hands.

录音原稿:

My little son Tom is eight years old. He likes playing basketball and the other games. On Sundays I can”t see him at home but easily find him in the open air. He always plays basketball with his friends there.

Last Monday, Tom finished his homework after the first class in the afternoon. He played the ball again. The playground was wet. After some time his ball was dirty and his hands were dirty, too. It was a quarter to four and the last class began. Tom had no time to wash his hands and ran into his classroom. Miss King, his English teacher, told Tom to write some new words. Tom stood in front of the blackboard and started to write. Miss King saw his right hand was dirty.
“Oh, dear!”said the teacher. “Your right hand is dirty. I”m sure it”s the dirtiest in our class.”

“You are wrong, Miss King,”said Tom. Then he showed his left hand to her and she found it was dirtier.

精析:该短文中出现了两个人物,即Tom和Miss King。短文中第一句话My little son Tom is eight years old明确了第1题的答案为A项。第一段最后一句话He always plays basketball with his friends there,说明第2题的答案为A项。由录音材料中的句子After some time his ball was dirty and his hands were dirty, too可知,第3题的答案为C项。由Miss King, his English teacher可知,第4题的答案为A项。由短文中最后一句话可得知,第5题的答案为B项。

解题技巧:在做听力测试时,要注意试题排列顺序。一般情况下短文理解的每道小题是以所给材料的顺序排列的,了解这一点很有帮助。如果没有时间浏览选项时,可采取边听录音边依次浏览选项,同时进行思考和答题,也可以先看、边听边看两者相结合。另外,根据这一顺序排列的原则,也可根据答案的逻辑性,判断你的答案是否正确。

四. 整体吸收法

整体吸收法是整个对话或课文的听后整体理解,它具体包括两个方面:一是通过对完整话语的反复听和理解而达到对所听的话语的整体吸收;二是通过对完整课文的反复听和理解而达到对所听的完整文段的整体吸收。整体吸收的内容包括整体语调、整体思想感情和整体情节等。其前提是受到所听内容的整体感染,使自己进入角色,从而提高英语听力水平。例如:

本题有一篇对话。请先听对话,再根据对内内容和所提问题选择正确答案。

1. Are Ann and Kate talking on the telephone?

A. No, they aren”t. B. I”m not sure.

C. Yes, they are.

2. When will Ann go to Kate”s home?

A. This evening. B. Tomorrow evening.

C. Tomorrow morning.

3. How will Ann go to Kate”s home?

A. On foot. B. By air. C. By boat.

4. Where is Ann”s building?

A. Near the post office.

B. Next to the post office.

C. In front of the post office.

5. Which floor does Ann live on?

A. The second floor. B. The fifth floor.

C. The third floor.

录音原稿:

A: Hello, 6129985.

B: Hello, could I speak to Ann, please?

A: Speaking, please.

B: This is Kate. Would you like to come to my home tomorrow evening?

A: I”d love to. When shall I get to your home?

B: Before six o”clock.

A: But how can I get there? By bus or on foot?

B: On foot. First you get to our school, then walk along the road and take the third turning on the right. It”s about 300 meters away from the gate. Our building is next to the post office. I live on the third floor.

A: OK. Thanks a lot. Bye.

B: Goodbye.

精讲精析:该题为对话理解。在听对话的过程中要弄清对话双方所交谈的话题及具体内容,以及涉及的人或物。从录音稿中发现这篇对话是在Ann与Kate之间进行的。Kate邀请Ann明天晚上到她家里去,并告知她家的路线和她家的位置。在听对话的时候一定要捕捉与选项相关的信息。第1题答案为C项,因为电话对话是在Ann和Kate之间进行的。第2题的答案为B项,根据Would you like to come to my home tomorrow evening?可知。第3题的答案为A项,因为Kate叫Ann步行去她家。第4题的答案为B项,根据Our building is next to the post office可知。第5题的答案为C项,根据I live on the third floor可知。

解题技巧:运用整体吸收法听对话时要使自己进入角色,以便弄清对方所交谈的内容与自己作为角色的所谈话题之间的联系,这样有利于很快地将整个对话的内容理解和吸收。

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