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仁爱八年级英语上 时态

动词的时态:
(一)时态概述:作谓语的动词用来表示动作(情况)发生时间的各种形式称为时态,英语中的时态,就是通过特殊的动词词尾或加一些相关的助动词be, have(has)等,用来表示动作或事件发生的不同时间和方面。 eg: He reads newspapers every day. He read the newspaper yesterday. He is going to read the newspaper tomorrow.
(二)一般现在时: 1. 动词变化:一般现在时主要用动词原形表示,但第三人称单数后要加词尾-s,另外be和have有特殊的人称形式。 在加词尾-s时要注意: 情况 加法 例词 一般情况 加-s reads, writes, says 以ch, sh, s, x, 或o收尾的词 加-es teaches, washes, guesses, fixes, goes 以“辅音字母+y”结尾的词 变y为i再加-es try-tries carry-carries 读音: 情况 读法 例词 在[p][t][k][f]等清辅音后 [s] helps, hates, asks, laughs 在[s][z][ ][t ][d3]等音后 [iz] faces, rises, wishes, watches, urges 在其他情况下 [z] plans, cries, shows

2. 一般现在时主要表示: (1)经常性或习惯性的动作,常与这样的时间状语连用:always, often, usually, sometimes等 eg: We always help each other. It often snows in winter. I get up early every morning. (2)表示主语现在的特征、性格、能力等。 eg: He loves sports. Jane is an outgoing girl. Tom and Tim both have medium height. (3)表示客观、普遍真理 eg: Two and four makes six. Water boils at 100℃ The moon moves round the earth.

3. 一般现在时的疑问句一般以在句首加助动词do,does的方式构成。第三人称单数加does,其他加do,这时动词一概用原形;动词be只需与主语位置对调就行了。 eg: Do you like English? Do they have story books? What does she do every evening? Is she at home? Are you good at English?

4. 一般现在时的否定式是do not(don't)或does not (doesn't)+动词原形来构成的,be动词做谓语动词只需在be后加not构成否定。 eg: I don't like oranges at all. She doesn't work in the TV station. They aren't students. I'm not busy every weekend.

三. 现在进行时: 1. 动词变化:现在进行时由“am /is /are+动词现在分词”构成。加-ing的规则如下: (1)一般在动词原形末尾加-ing。如: stay-staying do-doing listen-listening suffer-suffering work-working spend-spending look-looking (2)以不发音的字母e结尾的动词,先去掉e,再加-ing。如: make-making take-taking give-giving ride-riding please-pleasing refuse-refusing close-closing operate-operating (3)以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节词,先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ing。如: put-putting sit-sitting run-running win-winning begin-beginning

2. 现在进行时的用法 (1)表示说话时正在进行或发生的动作,这时可以不用时间状语,也可以和now, at present, at the moment等时间状语连用。有时用一个动词,如look(看),listen(听)。 eg: What are you reading now? Listen! Someone is singing in the classroom. (2)表示当前一段时期的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。 eg: They are working in a factory these days. More and more people are giving up smoking. (3)表示最近按计划或安排要进行的动作。 现在进行时有时可表示一个在最近按计划或安排要进行的动作,即可以用来代替将来时。 eg: When are you leaving? Are you going to Tibet tomorrow? 3. 现在进行时的否定句和疑问句比较简单。否定句在be(am, is, are)后面加not;疑问句把be动词移到主语前。 eg: I am not working. What are you reading now? How are you feeling today? The train isn't arriving soon.

四. 一般过去时: 1. 动词变化:一般过去时主要表示过去的动作或状态,在句中由主语+动词的过去式来表达。 构成规则 原形 过去式 一般在动词末尾加-ed work plant play worked planted played 结尾是e的动词在末尾加-d like live change liked lived changed 末尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节词,先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ed plan(计划) stop drop planned stopped dropped 以辅音字母加y结尾的,先变y为i再加-ed carry study cry carried studied cried 否定式 疑问式 否定疑问式 简单回答 I did not work. Did I work? Did I not work? Yes, you did. No, you didn't. You did not work. Did you work? Did you not work? Yes, I did. No, I didn't. He / She / It did not work. Did he / she / it work? Did he / she / it not work? Yes, he / she / it /did. No, he /she /it didn't. We did not work. Did we work? Did we not work? Yes, you did. No, you didn't. You did not work. Did you work? Did you not work? Yes, we did. No, we didn't. They did not work. Did they work? Did you they not work? Yes, they did. No, they didn't.

2. 一般过去时的基本用法: (1)带有确定的过去时间状语时,要用过去时。(eg: yesterday, last year, just now, two days ago, in the old days等) eg: He left just now. Lei Feng was a good soldier. What did you have for breakfast this morning? (2)表示过去某一段时间内经常或反复发生的动作,这时常和表示频度的状语连用。 eg: Last term we often did experiments. He always went to work by bus.

五. be going to 表示一般将来 1. 用法:表示现在打算在最近或将来要做的事,或表示说话人根据已有的迹象认为很有可能要发生的事情,be随着人称的变化变成(am, is, are) eg: We are going to have a new subject this year. It's going to rain this afternoon. I'm going to be a pilot when I grow up. 2. be going to 的否定句在be动词后加上not;be going to 的疑问句把be动词移到主语前。 eg: He isn't going to see his brother tomorrow. I'm not going to tell you about it. Who's going to use it? Is your sister going to bring your lunch? What are you going to do next Sunday.

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