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“完形填空”题的解题思路与技巧

完形填空题是英语中考试题中比较灵活,难度较大但区分度相当好的一种题型,分值从前几年的10分增加到目前的15分或20分,所选用的题材也逐渐从教材扩大到课外资料,考查的内容也逐渐趋向综合性。因此,完形填空题受到老师和同学们的高度重视。



一、完形填空题型的特点



所谓完形填空,就是在意义表达连贯的文章中,有目的地挖去一些词语,形成文章的空格,要求考生在给出的对应备选答案里,从整个语段的内容、组织结构和语言特点出发,全面考虑,综合运用所学的词汇、语法知识、文化风俗、背景知识和一般常识性知识,选出一个正确或最佳答案填充空格。完形填空后的文章,不仅要语法正确,用词恰当,而且意思完整、结构合理,前后一致。



完形填空题的短文难度与中学英语教材难度大致相当;短文的第一句往往是完整的,目的是给学生提供一个背景或告诉故事发生的时间、地点、背景,或告诉全文的中心内容;在备选的答案中往往会出现A、B、C、D四个答案都正确的情况,但是根据上下文多角度去考虑,只有一个答案是正确的。



二、解题思路



1.初读全文,懂文意。快速阅读全文,了解文章的大意,注意语境和有关提示,正确地分析、归纳、概括出文章的主旨或段落大意。



阅读时,跳过空格,通读全文一遍,力求对文章的整体内容有个基本的了解,要遵循整体性原则和连贯性原则。也就是说在阅读时,要把握整体,注意语境和局部的流畅,同时又要放松思想,克服心理紧张,不要因为个别生词就着急,因为大多数的生词能够根据上下文推断出其词义。一般情况下,文章的首句是完整的,是交待背景的,突破首句有助于把握大意,理顺思路;而结尾的几句则是对文章的总结或作者观点的表明。



2.逐句阅读,细分析,试填。在了解文章大意的基础上,按文章前后顺序结合备选答案,对每道题所给词语的确切含义进行分析比较,并考虑全文整体意境的影响,做到瞻前顾后,上下文呼应,运用逻辑思维,推理的方式来进行答题。比如,若选项是动词,首先要弄清是谓语动词还是非谓语动词,如果是谓语动词,应根据文章的需要确定它的时态、语态、语气形式以及人称及数方面的一致;如果是非谓语动词,则要从句子的功能以及它的逻辑主语关系去考虑它的适当形式;若选项是介词或副词,则首先要确定它是属于固定搭配或惯用法,否则要根据上下文的意思去选择。尽量捕捉与小题有关的信息点,分析备选答案的词汇意义,挑选出本句所需要的,又能体现文章主题的词语,从而选出最佳答案。另外还注意试题有易有难,应暂时绕开那些少数较疑难的问题,先做最有把握、最熟悉的短语,惯用法动词形式和语言结构的题目。



3.复读全文,对答案,全面验证。借助已补全的空缺,再细读全文,看填入答案后全文是否意思通顺,结构完整,他们是否有相互矛盾的地方。在前两遍的基础上,已对短文有了较充分的理解,也更容易发现错误。认真检查所选的词是否得当,语法是否正确,上下文的句意是否流畅贯通,逻辑推理是否合理。对那些词语意义与文章不符的选项及时作出调整或修正,然后综合运用词汇、句型、语法等知识反复地字斟句酌,排除明显错误,缩小选择范围,得出符合逻辑的正确答案。



特别强调:第三步的复读尤为重要,可以说,不复查,不读第三遍就等于放弃了纠正错误的机会。



三、题型分析



做完形填空题一般可以从惯用法、常识、逻辑推理、词汇的意义以及上下文的角度去考虑。现结合实例加以说明。



The bell rang loudly. Everybody packed their schoolbags and got ready to go home. When the 1 dismissed the children, 2 lined up in two rows and walked orderly to the school gate.



Usually David's 3 would fetch him home from school but today she was not there. David waited for 15 minutes 4 he walked home.



When he reached home, he knocked on the 5 as he did not bring his keys. Surprisingly, no one answered the door. David 6 his mother was in the toilet so he waited patiently for his mother. After a few minutes there was 7 no response(回答). Just as he was about to go to the nearby coffee shop where his father worked to 8 the keys, he heard the 9 voice of his neighbour, John.



David told him that no one was at home and John's mother suggested that David 10 in their house till his mother came back. David and John played 11 till evening when David's mother came back.



David 12 John and his family before he went back into his house. David's mother 13 David that she had a backache and she had to see a doctor. 14 this experience, David learnt an important 15 , "Neighbours are people who help each other."



1. A. teacher B. nurse C. worker D. farmer



2. A. he B. they C. she D. we



3. A. father B. neighbour C. mother D. doctor



4. A. before B. after C. when D. while



5. A. window B. floor C. wall D. door



6. A. hoped B. thought C. said D. preferred



7. A. almost B. already C. still D. always



8. A. get B. make C. find D. buy



9. A. friendly B. angry C. lazy D. unhappy



10. A. sit B. stay C. come D. drop



11. A. carefully B. quickly C. easily D. happily



12. A. called B. loved C. thanked D. visited



13. A. told B. answered C. asked D. kissed



14. A. From B. About C. To D. Of



15. A. word B. lesson C. sentence D. saying



The answers are: 1-5 ABCAD 6-19 BCAAB 11-15 DCAAB



1.初读全文,懂文意。本文的大意是David在不见他妈妈来学校接他后独自回家,但到家后又没带钥匙,在这时,邻居John叫他去他家玩,因为David的妈妈去医院看病前托付John照顾David。由此,David感到:邻居就是那些互相帮助的人们。



2.逐句阅读,细分析,试填。从首句可推断语境是在学校里,所以选出题1是A;文章是用第三人称写的,题2选B;做题3时要看后面有提示词”she”,故选C;在把”waited”与“walked”动作进行先后比较后,选出题4的选项是A;从常识推理题5选项是D,题6选项是B;从词汇的意义判断,David再次敲门后仍然无回答,所以题7选C;David想到他父亲工作的地方取钥匙,故题8选A;从下文John的话语判断题9应选A;题10从四个动词推理,选项B stay比较符合题意;经过John的解释,David玩得高兴是自然的,故题11选D;从上下句推断,在David离开John家时会说谢谢,而David的妈妈也会把原因告诉他,故题12选C,题13选A;从词语搭配来看,以from this experienced为最佳,题14选A;learn a lesson是固定搭配,题15选B。



3.复读全文,对答案,全面验证。特别是题2,题4,题10,题14和题15。从不同的角度和已有的知识去进行比较,推理以及逻辑分析,从而确定一个正确的选项。



四、注意事项



  1.切忌题目一到手就逐字逐句往下填,而不先去阅读全文,理解文意。



  2.做完形填空不同于单项选择。不能把完形填空题看作是孤立的选项题。



  3.对文意意思不清时应及时复读或回头看。一般以段为单位处理完形填空题不会影响选项的正确性。



  4.最后记得复读验证。

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