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八年级上英语语法点滴(二)

八年级上英语语法点滴(二)
11) 使用-ing分词的几种情况
1.在进行时态中。如:
He is watching TV in the room.
They were dancing at nine o'clock last night.
2.在there be结构中。如:
There is a boy swimming in the river.
3.在have fun/problems结构中。如:
We have fun learning English this term.
They had problems getting to the top of the mountain.
4.在介词后面。如:
Thanks for helping me.
Are you good at playing basketball.
5.在以下结构中:
enjoy doing sth 乐于做某事
finish doing sth完成做某事
feel like doing sth 想要做某事
stop doing sth 停止做某事
forget doing sth 忘记做过某事
go on doing sth 继续做某事
remember doing sth 记得做过某事
like doing sth 喜欢做某事
keep sb doing sth 使某人一直做某事
find sb doing sth 发现某人做某事
see/hear/watch sb doing sth 看到/听到/观看某人做某事
try doing sth 试图做某事
need doing sth 需要做某事
prefer doing sth 宁愿做某事
mind doing sth 介意做某事
practice doing sth 练习做某事
be busy doing sth 忙于做某事
can't help doing sth 禁不住做某事
miss doing sth 错过做某事
12) 英语中的“单数”
1.主语的第三人称单数形式,即可用“he,she,it”代替的。如:
he, she, it
my friend, his teacher, our classroom, Tom, Mary's uncle
2.名词有单数名词和复数名词。如:
man(单数)---men(复数) banana(单数)---bananas(复数)
3.动词有原形,第三人称单数形式,-ing分词,过去式,过去分词。如:
go---goes---going---went---gone
work---works---working---worked---worked
watch---watches---watching---watched---watched
当主语为第三人称单数的时候,谓语动词必须用相应的第三人称单数形式。如:
The boy wants to be a sales assistant.
Our English teacher is from the US.
Their daughter makes her breakfast all by herself.
13) 名词的复数构成的几种形式
名词复数的构成可分为规则变化和不规则变化两种。
I 名词复数的规则变化
1.一般在名词词尾加-s。如:
pear---pears hamburger---hamburgers
desk---desks tree---trees
2.以字母-s, -sh, -ch, -x结尾的名词,词尾加-es。如:
class---classes dish---dishes
watch---watches box---boxes
3.以字母-o结尾的某些名词,词尾加-es。如:
potato---potatoes tomato---tomatoes
Negro---Negroes hero---heroes
4.以辅音字母加-y结尾的名词,将-y变为-i,再加-es。如:

family---families dictionary---dictionaries
city---cities country---countries
5.以字母-f或-fe结尾的名词,将-f或-fe变为-v,再加-es。如:
half---halves leaf---leaves
thief---thieves knife---knives
self---selves wife---wives
life---lives wolf---wolves
shelf---shelves loaf---loaves
但是:
scarf---scarves(fes) roof---roofs
serf---serfs gulf---gulfs
chief---chiefs proof---proofs
belief---beliefs
II 名词复数的不规则变化
1.将-oo改为--ee。如:
foot---feet tooth---teeth
2.将-man改为-men。如:
man---men woman---women
policeman---policemen postman---postmen
3.添加词尾。如:
child---children
4.单复数同形。如:
sheep---sheep deer---deer
fish---fish people---people
5.表示“某国人”的单、复数变化。即“中日瑞不变英法变,其它国把-s加后面”。如:
Chinese---Chinese Japanese---Japanese
Swiss---Swiss
Englishman---Englishmen Frenchman---Frenchmen
American---Americans Australian---Australians
Canadian---Canadians Korean---Koreans
Russian---Russians Indian---Indians
6.其它。如:
mouse---mice
apple tree---apple trees
man teacher---men teachers
14) 双写最后一个字母的-ing分词
初中阶段常见的有以下这些:
1.let→letting 让
hit→hitting 打、撞
cut→cutting 切、割
get→getting 取、得到
sit→sitting 坐
forget→forgetting 忘记
put→putting 放
set→setting 设置
babysit→babysitting 临时受雇照顾婴儿
2.shop→shopping 购物
trip→tripping 绊
stop→stopping 停止
drop→dropping 放弃
3.travel→travel(l)ing 旅游
swim→swimming 游泳
run→running 跑步
dig→digging 挖、掘
begin→beginning 开始
prefer→preferring 宁愿
plan→planning 计划
15) 肯定句变否定句及疑问句要变化的一些词
1.some变为any。如:
There are some birds in the tree.
→There aren't any birds in the tree.
但是,若在表示请邀请、请求的句子中,some可以不变。如:
Would you like some orange juice?
与此相关的一些不定代词如something, somebody等也要进行相应变化。
2.and变为or。如:
I have a knife and a ruler.
→I don't have a knife or a ruler.
3.a lot of (=lots of)变为many或much。如:
They have a lot of friends.(可数名词)
→They don't have many friends.
There is lots of orange in the bottle.(不可数名词)
→There isn't much orange in the bottle.
4.already变为yet。如:
I have been there already.
→I haven't been there yet.
16) in与after
in 与 after 都可以表示时间,但二者有所区别。
1.in 经常用于将来时的句子中,以现在为起点,表示将来一段时间。如:
He will leave for Beijing in a week.一周后他会动身去北京。
2.after 经常用于过去时的句子中,以过去为起点,表示过去一段时间。如:
He left for Beijing after a week.一周后他动身去了北京。
不过,如果after后跟的是具体的时刻,它也可用于将来时。如:
We will finish the work after ten o'clock.十点后我们会完成工作的。
3.注意区分以下的in的用法。
I'll visit him in a week.一周后我会去拜访他。
I'll visit him twice in a week.一周内我会去拜访他两次。
17) 不定冠词a与an的使用
1.a 用在以辅音音素开头的单词前。如:
There is a "b" in the word "book".
单词book中有个字母b。
类似的字母还有:c, d, g, j, k, p, q, t, u, v, w, y, z。
She has a small knife.她有一把小刀。
2.an 用于以元音音素开头的单词前。如:
There is an "i" in the word "onion".
单词onion中有个字母i。
类似的字母还有:a, e, f, h, l, m, n, o, r, s, x。
Do you have an umbrella?
你有一把雨伞吗?
3.以元音字母开头的单词前面不一定都用an;以辅音字母开头的单词前面也不一定都用a。如:
a useful book a universe a one-letter word
an hour an uncle an umbrella an honest person
18) 如何表达英语中的“穿、戴”?
英语中表示“穿、戴”的表达方法有好几种,常见的有以下这些:
1、put on 主要表达“穿”的动作。如:
He put on his coat.他穿上了他的外套。
You'd better put on your shoes.你最好穿上你的鞋子。
2、wear 主要表示“穿、戴”的状态。如:
The old man wears a pair of glasses.老人戴着一副眼镜。
The girl is wearing a red skirt.那女孩穿着一条红色的短裙。
3、dress 可作及物动词,有“给......穿衣”的意思,后接“人”,而不是“衣服”。如:
Please dress the children right now.请立即给孩子们穿上衣服。
dress 也可作不及物动词,表示衣着的习惯。如:
The woman always dresses in green.那位妇女总是穿绿色的衣服。
4、be in 表示穿着的状态。如:
John is in white today.约翰今天穿白色的衣服。
The man in black is a football coach.
19) a little, a few 与 a bit (of)
a little, a few 与 a bit (of) 都有“一些、少量”的意义。他们的区别在哪里呢?
1. a little 意为“一些、少量”,后接不可数名词。如:
There is a little water in the bottle. 瓶子里有一点水。
还可以接形容词。如:
He is a little shy. 他有些害羞。
2. a few 意为“一些、少数”,后接复数的可数名词。如:
There are a few people in the room. 房间里有一些人。
3. a bit 意为“一点儿”,后接形容词。如:
It's a bit cold. 有点冷。
a bit of 后接不可数名词。如:
He has a bit of money. 他有一点儿钱。
4. a little 表肯定意义,little 表否定意义;a few 表肯定意义,few 表否定意义。如:
There is a little soda in the glass. 杯子里有一点儿汽水。
There is little soda in the glass. 杯子里几乎没有汽水了。
I have a few Chinese friends. 我有一些中国朋友。
Few people like him. 几乎没有人喜欢他。
5. a little = a bit of, 后接不可数名词;
a little = a bit = a little bit = kind of, 后接形容词,意为“有点儿”。
20) 关于like的用法
like 可以作动词,也可以作介词。
1、like 作动词,表示一般性的“爱好、喜欢”,有泛指的含义。如:
Do you like the color?你喜爱这种颜色吗?
like 后可接不定式(like to do sth),也可接动词的-ing分词(like doing sth),有时意思不尽相同。如:
She likes eating apples.她喜爱吃苹果。(习惯)
She likes to eat an apple.她喜爱吃一粒苹果。(平常不喜欢吃)
like 与 would 连用,后接不定式,表示愿望或客气的请求。如:
Would you like a cup of tea?您愿意喝杯茶吗?
“喜欢某人做某事”可以用结构“like sb to do sth/doing sth”。如:
They all like me to sing/singing English songs.他们都喜欢我唱英文歌。
2、like 作介词,可译成“像......”。如:
She is friendly to us like a mother.她对我们友好,就像母亲一样。
It looks like an orange.它看起来像个桔子。
3、区分以下句子:
A. What does he look like?
B. What is he like?
A句译为“他长相如何?”指一个人的外貌特征;而B句译为“他人怎么样?”指人的性格特点。
C. The boy like Peter is over there.
D. A boy like Peter can't do it.
A句指外貌相似,而D句指性格相似。

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