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表达原因的种种方式

表达原因的种种方式
英语中,表达原因的方式有多种,常译为“因为”、“由于”、“既然”等。下面就其使用作一总结,以供同学们参考。
1. 介词表达法。
表达这一意思的介词有at, for, from, over, with等。如:
(1)The whole country was very sad at the news of his death.
噩耗传来,举国悲恸。
注意:介词at在某些形容词或分词(如angry, delighted, glad, happy, sad, surprise等)后面,表示因某事引起某种情绪,译为“因为(由于)”。
(2)If it were not for the leadership of the Communist Party, our happy life today would be simply impossible.
要不是共产党的领导,根据不可能有我们今天的幸福生活。
(3)He is suffering from a bad cold now.
现在他感冒很厉害。
(4)He was mourning over his dead father.
由于他爸爸的死,他痛不欲生。
(5)His face turned red with anger.
由于生气,他的脸涨红了。
2. 连词表达法。
表达这一意思的连词有as, because, for, now, since, that等。如:
(1)As I didn’t listen to the report, I can’t tell you anything about it.
因为我没有听这个报告,所以关于它我不能对你说什么。
(2)Because he is ill, he is absent today.
因为他病了,所以他今天缺席。
(3)It must have rained last night, for the road was wet this morning.
昨夜一定是下雨了,因为路是湿得。
注意从属连词because与并列连词for的区别:(一)because引导的从句,直接回答由why引出的问句。because的位置可以位于句首或句末,位于句首时可用逗号与主句分开,置于句末则不须用逗号隔开。(二)for不用于句首,较because正式,少用于口语中,但语气比because弱,不能回答由why引出的问句。for所引导的分句只是对前一分句起解释、说明作用,它必须位于前一分句之后,而且必须用逗号隔开。
(4)Now I am well again, I can go on with my work.
我既然恢复了健康,那就可以继续工作了。
(5)He didn”t come, since he was busy.
他因为忙,所以没有来。
(6)We are glad that we have gained another bumper harvest.
我们都感到高兴,因为又获得了丰收。
3. 短语表达法。
表达这一意思的常用短语有as a result, because of, due to, in virtue of, in that, now that, on account of, owing to, thanks to等。如:
(1)He wasn”t present the meeting because of his illness.
由于他生病而没有出席这次会议。
(2)The flight was cancelled due to the fog.
班机因雾停航。
(3)He was highly praised in virtue of his brave deeds.
他由于见义勇为而受到了大力表扬。
(4)He was sentenced to two years in prison on account of his crime.
他因为犯罪而被判处监禁两年。
(5)Owing to our joint efforts, the task was fulfilled ahead of time.
由于我们的共同努力,任务提前完成了。
4. 不定式表达法。
如:(1)I am sorry to keep you waiting so long.
对不起,让你久等了。
(2)She wept to see him in such a terrible state.
她看到他这种可怕的样子就哭了。
注意:不定式的逻辑主语也是全句的主语。
5. 分词表达法。
现在分词或者过去分词都可以在句中作原因状语,译为“因为(由于)”。如:
(1)Having lived in the countryside for many years, he knows a lot about farming.
由于在农村住过很多年,所以他了解很多农业知识。
(2)I was unable to accept your invitation, having promised to accompany my good friend to listen to a lecture.
我已答应陪我的一位好朋友去听一个演讲而不能接受你的邀请。
(3)Gone from home so long, he joyously embraced his mates of boyhood.
由于久离家乡,所以他高兴地拥抱儿时的伙伴。
(4)All our money gone, we started to look for jobs.
由于所有的钱花光了,我们就开始工作。
总之,表达“原因”的方式有多种,同学们可根据不同的情况选用不同的表达方式,以增强英语语言的地道性和通顺性。

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