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浅谈so与such的用法

浅谈so与such的用法
看句子:He made such rapid progress that before long he began to write articles min English for an American newspaper. In fact , his English in one of these articles was so good that English wrote him a letter and praised him for it.
So与such是英语中两个常用词。这两个词的用法很多,且易混淆,初学英语者往往搞不清楚,因而使用是经常出错。文本就它的一些用法作一粗浅讨论。讨论主要以分析实例进行。
首先,我们应该弄清so是副词,修饰形容词和副词,在句中充当状语。Such为形容词修饰名词,在句中作定语,请看下面几个句子。
① The fish is so long.
② Don’t drive so fast, it’s dangerous.
③ Fred is so good a man.
④ It was such interesting meeting.
⑤ There were such a lot of people.
以上句子中,①、②句比较简单,so为副词,分别修饰形容词long和副词fast。③句中的so修饰good,可用形容词such改为:
Fred is such a good man。
这句话和原句的意义不变,但用so要用so+adj+a/an+n.的结构来表达。用such需用such+a/an+adj+n.的结构来表达。④句中仍可按③的形式表达,但也可写成:
The meeting was so interesting.
其句意不变.⑤句中的such也可换为so,但更据习惯搭配,应将a lot of 变为many为宜,如其后所修析的名词为不可数名词,还需将a lot of改为much。如:
With such a lot of time,they should have finished their homework
用so则为:
With so much time, they so have finished their homework.
因此遇到这种情况,我们可将such+a lot of+n.结构变为so+many/much+n.结构
再看这样一个句子:
The enemy scattered in such a hurry.
可改为:The enemy scattered so hurriedly.又如:
The plane flies at such a speed.
则可写成:The plane flies so fast.
这样的句子为such+a/an+n结构,改为so+adv结构其义不变。
在so……that—clause中和such……that---clause中,我们也可参照以上的结构来进行转换。
下面我再就so和such的其它用法作一讨论。
先看so的一个用法:替代。

①I enjoyed the music and so did my wife.
②If my brother is allowed to go out, so should I be.0
③You are young, so am I
④ I love sport. So do you.
A ⑤She will learn English, and so shall I, and so will her sister.
A组五个句子,都表示前面的情况也适合后者的情况,但主语不指同一人。需用下面的结构表达:
So+ be/have/do/助动词+主语
①Tomorrow will be your birthday. You are right, so it will.
②It was cold yesterday. Yes, so it was.
③Father, you promised to buy it for me.
④I hoped to win and so I shall.

B组so所引起的句子,实际上是对前面句意的重复,从语气上更加肯定前句的意思,肯定无疑,信十足。在这种句子中,主语所指相同,那么应用下面结构来表达:
So+主语+be/have/do/助动词
就A、B两组句子,我们不难看出,在这种结构中,so替代的不外乎三种情况:谓语、谓语的一部分或非谓语动词短语。
再看such作代词的一个用法。
在英语学习中,我们会碰到如下的句子:
① Such were the results.
② Such is his fate.
③ Such are the facts.
好多书中谈及such是作主语。但是,我也注意到要such之后的be是随着其后的形式而变化的。我认为似乎作表语更容易理解些。如下面的句子:
④ Such is life.
⑤ Such were his words.
⑥ Such is her reward.
以上三例均出自《牛津现代高级英汉双解辞典》,它指明such在此均作表语使用。另陕西人民出版社出版的《简明英语语法》也有同样的观点:
Such is the power of the press; such the state of man.
由此看来,such在这种句子中作表语讲要好些,从语法角度也更好解释。

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