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Unit 5语法

Unit 5语法
1. Linking verb + adjective 系动词+形容词,构成系表结构.
系动词:be (是) feel look sound taste turn get become smell seem 等等.
For example :The food tastes delious.
2. hope 与wish 的比较.都与that引导的从句连用.Hope常用于将来时表可能实现的愿望. Wish常用于过去式表示不可能实现的愿望.
For example : I hope that you will be happy.
I wish that you could be happy.
3. 动词-ing 和-ed形式作主语补语的区别.动词-ing表示主语的特征,常用于事物.动词-ed表示主语的状态,常用于人.这类词有:interest move active disappoint excite surprise frighten bore等等.
For example:The game is interesting.
I am interested in the game.
4.表示能力的词.
 Could 表示过去的能力.
Can  表示现在的能力
be able to   表示过去,现在,将来任何时候的能力.将来时态(shall \will be able to----)
5. 原因状语从句.引导词:because since so 等,但是因为,所以不能同时出现.
For example:He is ill, so he isn’t able to come.
She is lonely because she has no friends to talk with.
Since she is very strict with herself ,she is unhappy.
6. always 常用于一般现在时.表示频繁发生的动作.但与现在进行时态连用表是厌恶,责备,赞扬的语气.
For example: She is always talking about money.
7. can’t 表示一种否定的推测.You can’t have SARS.
must 表示一种肯定的推测.It must be sunny day tomorrow
8. 使役动词(让―――\ 使――)make let have 的用法.
make +宾语+(省约to 的不定式)动词.
make+宾语+名词.We make him team leader.
make +宾语+形容词.It make me happy.
Let+宾语+(省约to 的不定式)动词.
Have+宾语+(省约to 的不定式)动词
老师叫John到办公室拿他的书。
The teather made(had ) John get his book in the office.
爸爸让我明天下午看电视。
Father let me watch TV tomorrow afternoon. 
9. 英语语法as...as、so…as、so…that和too…to的用法区别
①so…as只用于否定句,as…as不但可用于肯定句,还可用于否定句
②as…as中的第一个as是副词,后接形容词或副词的原形;第二个as是连词,引导比较状语从句.
例如:Jack is as tall as you. 杰克和你一样高.
Jim is not so/as brave as you. 吉姆不如你聪明.
③so…that 如此…以至于(只能引导结果状语从句,的后面多接形容词、副词或分词,后接句子. 例如:
The house was so crowded that I could hardly turned around. 屋里很挤,我几乎都无法转身了.
④too…to 太…以至于不能…(too为副词,后接形容词或者副词,to为不定式的标志,这个不定式短语本身带有否定含义.) 例如:
The box is too heavy for her to carry it. 对于她来说,这个箱子太重了,以至于她搬不动.
10. few ; a few ; little; a little的用法和区别.
⑴ (a) few与 (a) little的区别
① 从所修饰的名词来看:(a) few后接可数名词,且要用复数形式;(a) little后接不可数名词。如:
We had little time to do it. 我们没什么时间做此事。
There’s only a little soup left. 只剩下一点儿汤了。
He has few friends. 他朋友很少。
I’ll only be away a few minutes. 我只离开几分钟。
②从所表示的意思来看:上面提到,两者均可表示数量,其主要区别是,(a) few后接可数名词,(a) little后接不可数名词。但是,(a) little还可表示大小。如:
Please accept this little gift.请接受这件小小的礼物。
There are several little towns along the river. 沿河有几个小镇。
注意体会下面两句,前面的little表示形状或个子“小”,后面的little表示数量“少”:
The little boy is very busy. He has little time to play. 这个小男孩很忙,他很少有时间玩。
It’s a little animal. It eats only a little food. 那是一个小动物,它只吃一点点食物。
③ 从各自的词性来看:在词性方面,两者的共同点是,均可用作形容词或代词;其不同点是,(a) little 还可用作副词,用以修饰形容词、副词、动词以及介词短语。如:
He is a little tired. 他有点累了。
They are a little bit better now. 现在他们稍好一点了。
You should walk a little faster. 你应该走快一点。
She was only a little over fifty years old.她才五十多一点。
⑵有 a 与没有 a 的区别
不带 a 的little和few 含有否定意义,表示数量很少或几乎没有,强调“少”;带有a 的little和few含有肯定意义,表示数量虽然少但毕竟还有,强调“有”。比较:
Few people like such things. 没什么人喜欢那样的东西。
A few people like such things. 有少数人喜欢那样的东西。
He knows little English. 他几乎不懂英语。
He knows a little English. 他懂一点点英语。
注意,当few前不带 a,但带有the, some these, those等修饰语时,也表示肯定意义。如:
Some few have already left. 有几个已经离开了。
The last few winters have been very cold.过去几个冬天都很冷。
The first few chapters are about his early days.前几章谈他的少年时期。
⑶思维拓展
注意两者比较级和最高级的用法及区别:little的比较级和最高级分别为less和least,few的比较级和最高级分别为fewer和fewest。如:
Boys think less about dress than girls do. 男孩子不像女孩子那样爱打扮。
He has the least money of all of us. 他是我们大家中钱最少的。
Fewer radios were sold this year than last. 今年卖掉的收音机比去年少。
He tried to finish the work with least money and fewest people. 他设法要用最少的钱和最少的人去完成这项工作。
11.系动词的用法
 连系动词本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必须与表语一起构成谓语。表语通常由名词、形容词,或相当于名词或形容词的词或短语等充当,说明主语是什么或怎么样。
二、分类
  1. "存在"类:表示存在或具有某种特征或状态.这类连系动词强调"存在"。常见的有:be(是),look(看起来),feel(摸上去),seem(似乎是),appear(似乎、显得),prove(证明是),smell(闻起来),taste(尝起来),sound(听起来)等。例如:
  The story sounds true.
  Those oranges taste good.
  2. "持续"类:表示某种情况或状态的持续。这类连系动词强调"持续"。常见的有: remain(依然),keep(保持),stay(保持),continue(继续、仍旧),stand(处于某状况或情形)等。例如:
  Why don't you put the meat in the fridge? It will stay fresh for several days.
  It's already ten in the morning. The store remains closed. What's the matter?
  3. "变化"类:表示由一种情况或状态变化成另一种情况或状态。这类连系动词强调"变化"后的情况或状态.常见的有:become(变成), turn(变成), grow(变得), go(变得)等。例如:
  Put the fish in the fridge, or it will go bad in hot weather.
三、注意事项
  1. 有些连系动词通常不用于被动语态和进行时态中。如:feel, taste等词。例如:
  -Do you like the material?
  -Yes, it feels very soft.
  2. 一般情况下,连系动词主要跟形容词或分词作表语。例如:
  Be careful when you cross this very busy street. If not, you may get run over by a car.
  3. 能跟名词作表语的连系动词常见的有:be, become, appear, seem, prove, remain和turn等.注意:turn后跟(表示主语身份的)名词作表语时,不加冠词。例如:
  Twenty years later, he turned teacher.
  The population growth in China remains a problem.
  4. 连系动词也可跟不定式(to do / to be),常见的有:appear, seem, remain, prove, look等。例如:
  Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains to be seen whether they will enjoy it.
  On the long journey, Peter proved to be a most interesting guide. We all had a wonderful time.

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