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时间状语从句

要点: 时间状语从句,由以下连词引导:

  when while as after before as soon as since till /until by the time 在时间状语从句中,要注意时态一致。一般情况下主句是将来时的时候,从句要用一般现在时。

  1.when当。。。的时候

  Mozart started writing music when he was four years old.

  (当)莫扎特4岁的时候,开始写音乐作品。

  2.while当。。。时

  He visited a lot of places while he was traveling.

  他在旅途中参观了许多地方。

  3.as在。。。的同时;一边。。。一边。。。

  He smiled as he stood up.

  他一边站起来一边笑着。

  4.after在。。。之后

  He left the classroom after he had finished his homework the other day.

  前几天做完作业之后回的家。

  5.before 在。。。之前

  Mr. Brown had worked in a bank for a year before he came here.

  布朗先生来这之前已经在一家银行里工作一年了。

  6.as soon as 一。。。就。。。

  We began to work as soon as we got there.

  我们一到那就开始工作。

  I will write to you as soon as I get home.

  我一到家就给你写信。

  7.since 自。。。以来 到现在

  表示自过去的一个起点时间到目前(说话时间)为止的一段持续时间。主句一般用现在完成时,从句用一般过去时。

  Mr Green has taught in that school since he came to China three years ago.

  自格林先生来中国以来,他就在这所学校教书。

  (还可以用作介词,本句从句还可以用短语:since three years ago(自三年前以来)表示。)

  8 till /until

  都可以作连词,连接时间状语,也可以作介词,与其它词构成介词短语,在句中作状语。

  They walked till /until it was dark.

  他们一直走到天黑。

  Xiao Ming didn't leave home till / until his father came back.

  小明直到他爸爸回来才离开家。

  9. by the time 到。。。为止 (所在句子的主句应用完成时)

  By the time he gets there , his father has already gone.

  他到家的时候,他爸爸已经走了。

  By the time I got to school, the class had already began.

  我到校时,已经开始上课了。

  时间状语从句(adverbial clause of time)

  1.由when, while, as引导的时间状语从句。例如:

  When you think you know nothing, then you begin to know something.当你以为自己一无所知的时候,你就是在开始知道一些事物了。

  When truth is buried under the ground it grows, it chokes, it gathers such an explosive force that on the day it bursts out , it blows up everything with it.当真理被埋在地下的时候,它在生长,它感到压抑,它蓄存着这么一种爆炸性力量,一旦冒出,它就会炸破一切!

  Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁。

  Will you watch my clothes while I have a swim. 我游泳的时候,请你照看一下我的衣服。

  You can feel the air moving as your hand pushes through it. 当你的手在空气中挥动的时候,你就能感觉到空气在流动。

  Our headmaster laughed as she spoke.我们的校长边谈边笑。

  when, while和as的区别

  when引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性的动词,又可以是瞬时动词。并且when有时表示"就在那时"。

  例如:

  When she came in, I stopped eating.她进来时,我在吃饭。(瞬时动词)

  When I lived in the countryside, I used to carry some water for him.当的住在农村时,我常常为他担水。(延续性的动词)

  We were about to leave when he came in.我们就要离开,就在那时他进来了。

  While引导的从句的谓语动作必须是延续性的,并强调主句和从句的动作同时发生(或者相对应)。并且while有时还可以表示对比。例如:

  While my wife was reading the newspaper, I was watching TV. (was reading是延续性的动词,was reading和was watching同时发生)

  I like playing football while you like playing basketball.我喜欢踢足球,而你喜欢打篮球。(对比)

  As表示"一边……一边",as引导的动作是延续性的动作,一般用于主句和从句动作同时发生;as也可以强调"一先一后。例如:

  We always sing as we walk.我们总是边走边唱。(as表示"一边……一边")

  As we was going out, it began to snow.当我们出门时,开始下雪了。(as强调句中两个动作紧接着先后发生,而不强调开始下雪的特定时间)

  as when while的辨析

  as when while都表示主、从句动作同时发生,三者差异如下:

  表示"一边。。。一边"的意思

  as 强调两个动作同时进行,并表示对比时

  用于发生时间较短时

  when

  1、还可以表示从句动词的动作在主几句动词的动作"之前 "或"之后"发生。

  2、when=and then; at that moment (正在那个时候)

  while 1、用于时间较长时

  2、 强调两个动作同时进行,并表示对比时

  有时这三个连词可以互换,有时不可以。

  lIt was raining hard when (as) I got there.

  我到那里时,正在下大雨。 ( 动作同时发生,when可换为as, 但不能换为while,因为get是点动词.)

  lWhen I had read the article, he called me.

  我看完这篇文章之后,她给我打了电话。( 从句动作发生在主句之前,注意时态表达,只能用when )

  lWhen I got to the cinema, the film had begun.

  (当)我到了电影院时,电影已经开演了。(从句的动作发生在主句之后,只能用when,并要注意时态)

  lHe was about to leave, when the telephone rang.

  他正要离开,忽然电话响了。( 此时不能放在句首。主句动词一般表达 "正在" "即将".

  while, as不能代替

  lShe thought I was talking about her daughter, while, in fact, I was talking about my daughter.

  他以为我在谈她女儿,然而,实际上在谈论我女儿。(表转折,对比,when, as都不能代替它)

  lWhile the alien was buying a souvenir, the girl called the police.

  外星人买纪念品时,那女孩给警察打了电话。(表示主句,从句的动作同时发生,while后引导的状语从句的动词必须是延续动词不能是点动词,因为它表示较长时间)

  lMother was worried because little Alice was ill, especially as (when/ while) father was away.

  妈妈担心,因为小爱丽丝病了,特别是他父亲不在家的时候。(此时as ,when, while可通用)

  2.由before和after引导的时间状语从句。

  注意before引导的从句不再用否定式的谓语,并且当before引导的从句位于主句之后,有时译成"就,才"。还要注意主句和从句之间的时间关系。当主句用将来时,从句总是用现在时;如果before引导的从句谓语用的是过去时,则主句动词多用过去完成时,这样以便体现动作发生的先后。After表示主句动作发生在从句动作之后。主句和从句的动作的时间关系正好与before引导的从句相反。例如:

  It will be four days before they come back. 他们要过四天才能回来。

  Einstein almost knocked me down before he saw me.爱因斯坦几乎把我撞倒才看到我。

  My father had left for Canada just before the letter arrived.我父亲恰好在信到之前去加拿大了。

  They had not been married four months before they were divorced. 他们结婚还不到四个月就离婚了。

  After you think it over, please let me know what you decide.你仔细考虑过以后,告诉我你是怎样决定的。

  After we had finished the work, we went home.完成工作之后,我们回家了。(从句用过去完成时,主句用一般过去时)

  3.由till或until引导的时间状语从句。

  till和until一般情况下两者可以互换,但是在强调句型中多用until。并且要注意的是:如果主句中的谓语动词是瞬时动词时,必须用否定形式;如果主句中的谓语动词是延续性动词时,用肯定或否定形式都可以,但表达的意思不同。例如:

  I didn't go to bed until(till) my father came back.直到我父亲回来我才上床睡觉。

  It was not until the meeting was over that he began to teach me English.直到散会之后他才开始教我英语。

  I worked until he came back.我工作到他回来为止。

  I didn't work until he came back.他回来我这才开始工作。

  Please wait until I arrived.在我到达之前请等我。

  4.由since引导的时间状语从句。

  since引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性的动词,又可以是瞬时动词。一般情况下,从句谓语动词用一般过去时,而主句的谓语动词用现在完成时。但在It is +时间+since从句的句型中,主句多用一般现在时。例如:

  I have been in Beijing since you left. 自从你离开以来,我一直在北京了。

  Where have you been since I last saw you? 自上次我和你见面以后,你到哪里去了?

  It is four years since my sister lived in Beijing. 我妹妹不在北京住有四年了。

  It is five months since our boss was in Beijing.我们老板离开北京有五个月了。

  知识扩展

  1. It is since从。。。以来多长时间了(因为since +从句或名词,表示一段时间)

  It is five years since we met last time.从我们上次见面已经五年了。

  2. It is +before…(。。。才)

  It was a long time before I went to sleep again.

  过了很长时间我才睡着。

  It was an hour before(=until) the police arrived.

  过了一个小时,警察才来。

  5.由as soon as, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment, the instant, the minute, 等引导的时间状语从句。这些连词都表示"一……就"。例如:

  I will go there directly I have finished my breakfast. 吃完早饭,我立即到那里去。

  The moment I heard the news, I hastened to the spot.我一听到消息,马上赶到了出事地点。

  As soon as I reach Canada, I will ring you up. 我一到加拿大,就给你来电话。

  【注意】hardly(scarcely, rarely)…when / before, no sooner…than相当于as soon as之意。主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。当hardly, scarcely, rarely和no sooner位于句首时,主句应用倒装语序。例如:

  He had no sooner arrived home than he was asked to start on another journey. 他刚到家,就被邀请开始另一旅程。

  No sooner had the sun shown itself above the horizon than he got out of bed to commence work.太阳刚从地平线上升起,他就起床劳动去了。

  Hardly had I sat down when he stepped in.我刚坐下,他就进来了。

  He had hardly fallen asleep when he felt a soft touch on his shoulder.这个阿拉伯人刚要入睡就感到肩膀上被轻轻一触。

  6.由by the time引导的时间状语从句。

  注意时态的变化:在一般情况下,如果从句的谓语动词用一般过去时,主句的谓语动词用过去完成时;如果主句的谓语动词用一般现在时,主句的谓语动词用将来完成时。例如:

  By the time you came back, I had finished this book.到你回来时,我已经写完这本书了。

  By the time you come here tomorrow, I will have finished this work. 你明天来这儿的时候,我将已经完成此工作了。

  7.由each time, every time和whenever引导的时间状语从句。例如:

  Each time he came to Harbin, he would call on me. 他每次来哈尔滨,总是来看我。

  Whenever that man says"To tell the truth", I suspect that he's about to tell a lie.每当那个人说"说实在话"的时候,我猜想他就要说谎了。

  You grow younger every time I see you. 每次遇到你,见你更年轻了。

  8.由as long as和so long as引导的时间状语从句。这两个连词表示"有多久……就多久"。例如:

  You can go where you like as long as you get back before dark. 你可以随意到哪里去,只要在天黑以前回来就行。

  I will fight against these conditions as long as there is a breath in my body! 只要我一息尚存,我就要反对这种境况。

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