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when 与 while 用法解析

when 与 while 用法解析

连接词when与while是一对常与过去进行时合作的twins。但正如世界上没有两片完全相同的树叶一样,when与while在有着某些相似之处的同时,彼此也各有一些区别于对方的截然不同的“独特个性”。Do you want to know the differences between them?请看——
● when 解析版
[引导时间状语从句]具体地说,它有以下几种含义:
1.表明一个动作发生的时候,另一个动作正在进行之中。例如:
When the teacher came into the classroom ,we were reading English.当老师走进教室时,我们正在读英语。
2.表明当某一动作正在进行时,另一动作发生了。如:
When Kate was flying a kite,she found a wallet lying on the ground.凯特正在放风筝时,她发现地上有个钱包。
[特别提示]当when从句放在主句之后时,它更强调某一动作的突然性,此时的when相当于and then,and suddenly,just at that time。如;
1.We were watching TV when the telephone rang.(=We were watching TV and suddenly the telephone rang.)我们正在看电视,(突然)电话铃响了。
试比较:When we were watching TV, the telephone rang.我们正在看电视时,电话铃响了。
2.The boys were playing football when it began to rain.男孩子们正在踢球时,(不料)开始下雨了。
3.I was taking a walk when I came across Lily.我正在散步时,(没想到)遇见了莉莉。
特别是主句中有just,或when从句中有suddenly时,这种突然性更为明显、强烈。例如:
4.He was just falling asleep when he heard someone shout,“Stop the thief!”他刚要入睡,突然听到有人喊:“抓贼!”
5.We were doing our homework at school last night when the lights went out.昨天晚上我们正在学校写作业时,灯(突然)灭了。
[相关链接]when引导的状语从句除了上述意义之外,也常具有其他一些含义:
1.一……就……(=as soon as)
We will stand up when the teacher comesin.老师一进来我们就起立。
2.虽然;然而;可是(=although)
We had only five boxes when we needed eight.我们需要八个箱子,可是只有五个。
3.每当……(=whenever)
It is always very hot here when it is summer.每当夏季,这儿总是很热。
4.既然(=since,as)
Why did you come here on foot when you know you should come by bike?既然你知道该骑自行车来,你为何还要步行呢?
● while 解析版
while引导状语从句,有以下两种含义:
1.表示某个动作正在进行的同时,另一动作也在进行之中,这时主从句都用进行时态,有对同类的两个动作进行对比的意味。如:
While I was playing the piano,she was dancing.我在弹钢琴,她在跳舞。
While Jim is picking apples,Kate is carrying apples to the truck.吉姆正在摘苹果,凯特正在把苹果搬到卡车上去。
2.表示某个动作正在进行时,又发生了另一动作(该动作用一般过去时)。如:
While I was reading,I fell asleep.我读着读着就睡着了。
While we were swimming in the river,we saw a fish jump out of the water.我们正在河中游泳时,看见一条鱼跃出了水面。
[相关链接]
while还有以下几种常见用法:
1.只要(=as long as)
There will be life while there is water and air.只要有空气和水,就会有生命。
2.而;然而[表示对比]
He is a driver while I'm a teacher.他是司机,而我是老师。
3.虽然(=although);尽管[表示让步]
While I see what you say,I can't agree with you.虽然我能理解你说的话,但是我不能同意你。
4.用作名词,表示“一会儿或一段时间”,常与a,the或this等连用。如:
Just wait a while and then I will help you.等一下,我会来帮你的。
Where have you been all this while?这一阵子你一直都在哪儿?
● when 与 while 区别版
综上所述,我们可以看出when与while本质的区别在于:when既可以指某一点时间,也可以指某一段时间,其从句谓语动词表示的动作既可以是瞬间性的、非延续性的,也可以是延续性的;while指一段时间,从句中的谓语动词必须是延续性的。即:指一段时间时,when可用while来代替;指一点时间时,when不能用 while来代替。试比较:
When he woke up,it was eight o'clock.(√)
While he woke up,it was eight o'clock.(×)
When I was waiting for a bus,I met her.(√)
While I was waiting for a bus,I met her.(√)
●练习版 Can you say the following sentences in English?
1.当我们到达火车站时,天正下着雪。
______________________________
2.孩子们正在做游戏,突然铃响了。
______________________________
3.爸爸在洗车时,妈妈在做饭。
______________________________
4.琳达正在跑步时伤了自己的左腿。
______________________________
5.我们在西安时,每天见面。
______________________________
Key:
1.When we got to the train station,it was snowing.
2.The children were playing games when the bell rang.
3.While dad was washing his car,mum was cooking.
4.When /While Linda was running,she hurt her left leg.
5.When /While we were in Xi'an,we met every day.

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