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八年级新湘教版下 Unit7 Topic 3副词比较级和最高级的形式 辅导

八年级新湘教版下 Unit7 Topic 3副词比较级和最高级的形式 辅导
副词比较级和最高级的变化形式与形容词基本上一样
一般 副词
hard→harder →hardest
fast→faster →fastest
late→later →latest
early→earlier →earliest
特殊 副词
well →better →best
much →more →most
badly →worse →worst
little →less →least
但是,开放类副词即以后缀ly结尾的副词不能像形容词那样加er或est,如 quickly →more quickly →most quickly quietly →more quietly →most quietly
〔注〕: early中的ly不是后缀,故可以把y变i再加er和est
比较级和最高级的基本用法
一、原级比较的基本用法
1. 原级比较由“as+形容词或副词(或再加名词或短语)+as ”构成“原级相同”比较句,表示两者比较;其否定式,即“程度不及”比较句型为“not so(as) +形容词或副词+as”,而且as…as结构前可用just, almost, nearly, quite等表示程度的词修饰
1) Walking briskly for thirty minutes will burn as many calories as .
〔A〕 to run for fifteen minutes
〔B〕 running for fifteen minutes
〔C〕 you run for fifteen minutes
〔D〕 fifteenminute walking
2) The gorilla(大猩猩), while 〔A〕 not quite as curious than 〔B〕 the chimpanzee(黑猩猩), shows more persistence 〔C〕 and memory retention(记忆力) in solving 〔D〕 a problem.
3) Alaska is twice 〔A〕 as larger 〔B〕 as 〔C〕 the next largest 〔D〕 state, Texas.
2. “as (so)+名词+as+名词”进行名词比较,这时一般情况下有一个表示原级的比较词,但如果第一名词前出现了形容词修饰该词或出现副词修饰谓语,应当用so而不用as
4) Thomas Jefferson’s achievements as an architect rival his contributions a politician.
〔A〕 such 〔B〕 more 〔C〕 as 〔D〕 than
5) I should say Henry is not much a writer as a reporter. (88年考题)
〔A〕 that 〔B〕 so 〔C〕 this 〔D〕 as
二、比较级
1. 比较级由“形容词(副词)比较级+than+…,”构成表示在两者中间一方比另一方“更加…”。连词than后可接句子,也可接名词、代词、名词短语、介词短语、动词、动词不定式、ING结构和ED结构,有时也可省去than。
6) Natural mica(云母) of 〔A〕 a superior 〔B〕 quality is cheapest 〔C〕 to obtain than synthetic 〔D〕 mica.
7) She is older than .
〔A〕 any other girl in the group 〔B〕 any girl in the group
〔C〕 all girls in the group 〔D〕 you and me as well as the group
8) Josephine McCrackin joined 〔A〕 the “Santa Cruz Sentinel” in 1905 and, until her death fifteen years late 〔B〕 , remained 〔C〕 active in journalistic 〔D〕 work.
2. 注意than前后两项相比较的人或事物要一致
9) The purpose of the research had a more important meaning for them than .
〔A〕 ours 〔B〕 with us
〔C〕 for ours it had 〔D〕 it did for us
10) Sound travels air.
〔A〕 faster through water than through 〔B〕 faster than through water and
〔C〕 through water faster and〔D〕 where it is faster through water than through
11) Gerbrand von den Feckhout, one of Rembrand’s pupils, followed 〔A〕 the style of his teacher so implicitly that 〔B〕 his paintings 〔C〕 are sometimes confused with his master 〔D〕 .
三、最高级
1. 最高级用于三者以上比较,形容词的结构形式是“定冠词+形容词最高级+名词+表示范围的短语或从句”(如all, of all, of the tree, in the world, that has ever taken place等)
12) The more 〔A〕 fearsome of all the 〔B〕 animals in 〔C〕 the Western 〔D〕 Hemisphere is the grizzly bear.
13) Of all economic 〔A〕 problems, inflation continues to be 〔B〕 a 〔C〕 most significant in its daily impact on 〔D〕 people and business.
14) , the most familiar to general public is the criminal jurisdiction.
〔A〕 All the activities
〔B〕 The activities
〔C〕 Of all the activities
〔D〕 It is the activities
2. 副词的最高级与形容词最高级的区别在于最高级前没有定冠词the
例题解析

1) B为正确答案。
2) B错。改为 as ,和前面的as和形容词原形curious 一起构成同程度比较。
3) B错。 改为as large。
4) C对。动词rival(胜过、匹敌)前后是两个相比较的成分achievements(成果)和 contributions(贡献),由于前面的名词后出现了短语 as an architect,故空白处也应用as,使前后对比成分一致。
5) B为正确答案。
6) C错。应改为比较级cheaper。比较级后并不一定跟接连词than,有时在其间有名词或名词短语(被形容词所修饰),介词短语,不定式或其他成分隔开。
7) A为正确答案。“She”作为单个不能跟全组比(C和D不对),也不能跟全组所有相比,因为“她”也是其中一员,自然“她”不能跟自己相比。这里“She”比较的是“这组中的任何一个”,所以A对。
8) B错。应改为比较级later,因此处实为与1905年相比晚15年,故应使用比较级。
9) D为正确答案。
10) A为正确答案。
11) D错。 改为his master’s。
12) A错。 改为most。
13) C错。改为the, significant是多音节形容词,在此处应用最高级形式(在前面加 the most),注意句中的“of all… ”。
14) C为正确答案。本句空白处缺状语,A和B全为名词短语,不符合条件;D为句子,和空白后面的句子没有任何联系,故亦应排除。只有C正确,和后面的最高级the most familiar前后呼应。
特殊表达法

一、形容词与副词的同级比较: 由“as(so)…as”引出,其否定式为“not so…”或“not as…as”,考生还应注意下列含有“as”结构或短语的句子
1. as such:表示上文所指明的事或人
He is a child,and must be treated as such. 他是个孩子,必须被当作孩子对待。
2. as much:表示“与…同量”
Take as much as you like. 拿多少都行。
I would gladly have paid twice as much for it. 就是价格再贵一倍,我也会愿意把它买下的。
He as much as admitted the whole story. 他几乎全部承认了。
3. as many:表示“与…一样多”
I found six mistakes in as many lines. 我在六行中发现了六个错。
二、表示“几倍于”的比较级:用twice (两倍),four times (四倍),ten times (十倍)加上as … as 结构
This one is four times as big as that one. 这个是那个的四倍大。(这个比那个大三倍。) / Our campus is three times as large as yours. 我们的校园比你们的大两倍。 / He has books twice as many as she does. 他的书比她多一倍。
1) The fiveyear deal obligates 〔A〕 the country to buy nine million tons 〔B〕 of grain a year 〔C〕 , three million more as 〔D〕 the old pact’s minimum.
三、“the same +名词+as”表示同等比较
2) The lens of a camera performs the lens of the eye.
〔A〕 in the same function 〔B〕 the same function as
〔C〕 the function is the same as 〔D〕 and has the same function
3) The elimination of inflation would ensure that the amount of money used in repaying a loan would
have as the amount of money borrowed.
〔A〕 as the same value 〔B〕 the same value
〔C〕 value as the same 〔D〕 the value is the same
四、比较级前可用a little, a bit, slightly, a great deal, a lot,many, much等词语表示不定量,far, completely,still表示程度或更进一步
4) There are now methods for studying color vision in infants than there once were.
〔A〕 more sophisticated than
〔B〕 much more sophisticated
〔C〕 much sophisticated
〔D〕 sophisticated
5) The photographs of Mars taken by satellite are than those taken from the Earth.
〔A〕 clearest
〔B〕 the clearest
〔C〕 much clearer
〔D〕 more clearer
6) Common porpoises(海豚) are usually not considered 〔A〕 migratory, although 〔B〕 some do move 〔C〕 to more warmer 〔D〕 waters in winter.
兼有两种形式的副词

1) close与closely
close意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地"
He is sitting close to me.
Watch him closely.
2) late 与lately
late意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近"
You have come too late.
What have you been doing lately?
3) deep与deeply
deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"
He pushed the stick deep into the mud.
Even father was deeply moved by the film.
4) high与highly
high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much
The plane was flying high.
I think highly of your opinion.
5) wide与widely
wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"
He opened the door wide.
English is widely used in the world.
6) free与freely
free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"
You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.
You may speak freely; say what you like.
副词有加a或ly的 区别在于通常加a 的副词描述一种状态,而加ly 的副词则倾向于感觉。
可修饰比较级的词
1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等
2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。
3)以上词(除by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。
典型例题:   
1) ---- Are you feeling ____? 
   ---- Yes,I'm fine now.
 A. any well B. any better C. quite good
 D. quite better  
 答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite修饰原级,well的比较级为better.
2)The experiment was____ easier than we had expected. 
  A. more  B. much more   C. much  
  D. more much
答案:C. much可修饰比较级,因此B,C都说得通,但easier本身已是比较级,不需more,因此C为正确答案。
3)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school. 
A. the happiest time  B. a more happier time 
C. much happiest time  D. a much happier time
答案:D。
中国语文中的副词
副词是一类用以修饰名词以外词语和整个句子的词,修饰名词的词一般为形容词。
一般而言中文在一个词的後面加「的」使其成形容词,加「地」使其成副词,但是现在一般已经不太常做这种区别了。
以副词修饰的句子举例:「一只非常小的虫轻易地钻进了那个洞穴里」,其中[非常]和[轻易]地为副词,小为形容词,虫为主词,钻进为动词,洞穴里指明前往地点。
一些问问题时的所用的词,像如何、谁、何时、什么等在某方面也可视为副词。
副词口诀:
  副词修饰动与形,范围程度与时间。肯否估计与情态,语气频率用法全。
  稍微没有全都偏,简直仅仅只永远,已经曾经就竟然,将要立刻刚偶然,
  渐渐终于决忽然,难道连续又再三,也许必须很非常,最太十分更马上,
  越极总挺常常再,屡次一定也不还。时名副名看加在,名前可加副不来。
  前很后名都不行,单独回答更不能。

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