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状语从句

状语从句
  由从句担任的状语,在句子中可修饰谓语(或其它动词)、形容词、副词或是整个句子,它可以用来表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等。状语从句是一较大的语法项目,也是近几年高考题中常见的一个重要试点。高考中已考查了时间、让步、地点、条件、目的等状语从句,这些从句仍是今后高考热点,应作充分准备。同时对方式状语从句也应引起重视。
  (一)时间状语从句
  表示时间的状语从句可由when, as, while, whenever, after, before, till (until), since, once, as soon as (或the moment ), by the time, no sooner … than, hardly (scarcely) … when, every time等引导。
  e.g. When I came into the office, the teachers were having a meeting.
   He started as soon as he received the news.
   Once you see him, you will never forget him.
   No sooner had I gone to bed than I went to sleep.
  (二)原因状语从句
   原因状语从句是表示原因或理由的,引导这类从句的最常用的连词是because, since, as , now that(既然)等,for 表示因果关系时(它引导的不是从句)为并列连词,语气不如because强。
   e.g. He is disappointed because he didn't get the position.
   As it is raining, I will not go out.
   Now that you mention it, I do remember.
  (三)地点状语从句
  引导地点状语从句的连词是where 和wherever等。
  e.g. Sit wherever you like.
   Make a mark where you have a question.
  (四)目的状语从句
  引导目的状语从句最常用的词(组)是so, so that(从句谓语常有情态动词), in order that, in case(以防,以免)等。
  e.g. Speak clearly, so that they may understand you.
   She has bought the book in order that she could follow the TV lessons.
   He left early in case he should miss the train.
  (五)结果状语从句
   结果状语从句是表示事态结果的从句,通常主句是原因,从句是结果。由so that (从句谓语一般没有情态动词), so … that, such … that等引导。
   e.g. She was ill, so that she didn't attend the meeting.
   He was so excited that he could not say a word.
   She is such a good teacher that everyone admires her.
  (六)条件状语从句
   条件状语从句分真实性(有可能实现的事情)与非真实性(条件与事实相反或者在说话者看来不大可能实现的事情)条件句。引导条件状语从句的词(组)主要有if, unless, so (as) long as, on condition that, so (as) far as, if only ( = if )。注意:条件从句中的if 不能用whether替换。
   e.g. If he is not in the office, he must be out for lunch.
   You may borrow the book so long as you keep it clean.
   So far as I know(据我所知), he will be away for three months.
   You can go swimming on condition that ( = if ) you don't go too far away from the river bank.
   If he had come a few minutes earlier, he could have seen her.
  (七)让步状语从句
   让步状语从句可由although, though, as, even if (though), however, whatever, whether … or, no matter who (when, what, …) 等引导。注意:as引导的让步状语从句一般是倒装的。
   e.g. Though he is a child, he knows a lot.
   Child as he is, he knows a lot.
   Whatever ( = No matter what ) you say, I'll never change my mind.
  (八)方式状语从句
   方式状语从句常由as, as if (though), the way, rather than等引导。
   e.g. You must do the exercise as I show you.
   He acted as if nothing had happened.
  (九)比较状语从句
   比较状语从句常用than, so (as) … as, the more … the more等引导。
   e.g. I have made a lot more mistakes than you have.
   He smokes cigarettes as expensive as he can afford.
   The busier he is, the happier he feels.
  (十)使用状语从句时要注意的几个问题
   1、在时间和条件(有时也在方式、让步等)从句中,主句是一般将来时,从句通常用一般现在时表示将来。
   e.g. We'll go outing if it doesn't rain tomorrow.
   I'll write to you as soon as I get to Shanghai.
   2、有些时间、地点、条件、方式或让步从句,如果从句的主语与主句主语一致(或虽不一致,是it),从句的谓语又包含动词be ,就可省略从句中的"主语 + be"部分。
   e.g. When (he was) still a boy of ten, he had to work day and night.
   If (you are) asked you may come in.
   If (it is) necessary I'll explain to you again.
   3、注意区分不同从句:引导的是什么从句,不仅要根据连词,还要根据句子结构和句意来判别。以where为例,能引导多种从句。
   e.g. You are to find it where you left it.(地点状语从句)
   Tell me the address where he lives.(定语从句,句中有先行词)
   I don't know where he came from.(宾语从句)
   Where he has gone is not known yet.(主语从句)
   This place is where they once hid.(表语从句)
  练习、状语从句
  一、用横线划出下列句子中的状语从句,并指出是哪种状语从句:
  1. Child as she is, she knows a lot of things.
  2. The more I can do for the class, the happier I'll be.
  3. He talks as if (as though) he knew all about it.
  4. He is such a good teacher that the students love and respect him.
  5.I shall go to the park unless it rains.
  6. No sooner had I got home than it began to rain.
  7. Where there is water, there is life.
  8. He studied hard so that he could catch up with his classmates.
  9. Since you are very busy, I won't trouble you.
  10. Even if (though) I fail. I'll never lose heart.
  11. Once you begin the work, you must continue.
  12. I will find her wherever she may be.
  13. Now that you've come, you'd better have dinner with us.
  14. He was so excited that he couldn't fall asleep.
  15. We must do everything as he tells us.
  16. India is much bigger than Japan.
  17. No matter when you come, you are warmly welcome.
  18. As (So) long as you work hard, you can catch up with the other classmates.
  二、用适当的连词填空:
  1. Dr. Bethune (白求恩) came to China __________ he was fifty.
  2. He began to work __________ he got there.
  3. Let's begin our meeting __________everyone is here.
  4. I like the English people, __________ I don't like their food.
  5. __________ you go in China, you can see smiling faces.
  6. He didn't come to the lecture, __________ he was very busy.
  7. __________we had enough time, we walked to the cinema.
  8. They will help you __________ you meet with difficulty.
  9. _________ we came to the university, we have learnt quite a lot.
  10.I didn't join them yesterday evening __________ I had to go to an important meeting.
  11. We would try to get a car __________we could all travel together more easily.
  12. She wouldn't forget her mother's birthday __________ she seldom wrote to her family.
  13. We're doing everything we can to make things as easy for you ___________we can.
  14. The meeting became so disorderly __________ the speaker had to shout the audience down.
  15. He was angrier __________ ever before.
  16. __________ you lock all the doors, he can still manage to get in.
  17. The boy was so tired __________ he fell asleep on the bus.
  18. Hard _________ he tried, he couldn't force the door open.
  三、选择填空:
  1. I'll let you know ____ he comes back.
   A. before B. because C. as soon as D. although
  2. She will sing a song ____ she is asked.
   A. if B. unless C. for D. since
  3. We will work ____ we are needed.
   A. whenever B. because C. since D. wherever
  4. Read it aloud _____ the class can hear you.
  A. so that B. if C. when D. although
  5._____ you go, don't forget your people.
  A. Whenever B. However C. Wherever D. Whichever
  6. It is about ten years _____ I met you last.
  A. since B. for C. when D. as
  7. They will never succeed, _____ hard they try.
  A. because B. however C. when D. since
  8. _____ still half drunk, he made his way home.
  A. When B. Because C. Though D. As
  9. _____ she was very tired, she went on working.
  A. As B. Although C. Even D. In spite of
  10. Busy _____ he was, he tried his best to help you.
  A. as B. when C. since D. for
  11. I learned a little Russian _____ I was at middle school.
  A. though B. although C. as if D. when
  12. _____ we got to the station, the train had left already.
  A. If B. Unless C. Since D. When
  13. _____ the rain stops, we' 11 set off for the station.
  A. Before B. Unless C. As soon as D. Though
  14. She was _____ tired _____ she could not move an inch.
  A. so, that B. such, that C. very, that D. so, as
  15. We didn't go home _____ we finished the work.
  A. since B. until C. because D. though
  16. I'll stay here _____ everyone else comes back.
  A. even if B. as though C. because D. until
  17. Although it's raining, _____ are still working in the field.
  A. they B. but they C. and they D. so they
  18. Speak to him slowly _____ he may understand you better.
  A. since B. so that C. for D. because
  19. You'll miss the train ______ you hurry up.
  A. unless B. as C. if D. until
  20. When you read the book, you' d better make a mark _____ you have any questions.
  A. at which B. at where C. the place D. where
  21. We'd better hurry ______ it is getting dark.
  A. and B. but C. as D. unless
  22. I didn' t manage to do it _____ you had explained how.
  A. until B. unless C. when D. before
  23._____ he comes, we won't be able to go.
  A. Without B. Unless C. Except D. Even
  24. I hurried _____ I wouldn't be late for class.
  A. since B. so that C. as if D. unless
  25. _____ I catch a cold, I have pain in my back.
  A. Every time B. Though C. Even D. Where
  26. What's the matter _____ they still haven't answered the telegram?
  A. when B. that C. though D. however
  27. Bring it nearer _____ I may see it better.
  A. although B. even though C. so that D. since
  28. You may arrive in Beijing early _____ you mind taking the night train.
  A. that B. though C. unless D. if
  29. Helen listened carefully _____ she might discover exactly what she needed.
  A. in that B. in order that C. in case D. even though
  30. More people will eat out in restaurants _____ they do today.
  A. than B. when C. while D. as
  31._____ hard she tries, she can hardly avoid making mistakes in her homework.
  A. Much B. However C. As D. Although
  32. Poor _____ it may be, there is no place like home, _____ you may go.
  A. as; wherever B. though; whenever C. in spite of; when D. that; wherever
  33. The child was __ immediately after supper.
  A. enough tired to go to bed B. too tired to go to bed
  C. so tired that he went to bed D. very tired, he went to bed
  34. The history of nursing __ the history of man.
  A. as old as B. is old than C. that is as old as D. is as old as
  35. _____ born in Chicago, the author was famous for his stories about New York.
  A. Since B. Once C. When D. Although
  36._____ we stood at the top of the building, the people below were hardly visible.
  A. As B. Although C. Unless D. In spite of
  37. Scarcely was George Washington in his teens _____ his father died.
  A. than B. as C. while D. when
  38. _____ David goes, he is welcome.
  A. Whichever B. However C. Wherever D. Whatever
  39. The house stood _____ there had been a rock.
  A. which B. at which C. when D. where
  40. Small _____ it is, the pen is a most useful tool.
  A. because B. so C. if D. as
  41. After the new technique was introduced, the factory produced _____ tractors in 1988 as the year before.
  A. as twice many B. as many twice C. twice as many D. twice many as
  42. The piano in the other shop will be _____, but _____.
  A. cheaper; not as better B. more cheap; not as better
  C. cheaper; not as good D. more cheap; not as good
  43. John plays football _____, if not better than, David.
  A. as well B. as well as C. so well D. so well as
  44. Although he is considered a great writer,
  A. his works are not widely read B. but his works are not widely read
  C. however his works are not widely read D. still his works are not widely read
  45. ___ the day went on, the weather got worse.
  A. With B. Since C. While D. As
  46.-What was the party like?
  -Wonderful. It' s years _____ I enjoyed myself so much.
  A. after B. when C. before D. since
  47. It was not _____ she took off her dark glasses _____ I realized she was a famous film star.
  A. when; that B. until; that C. until; when D. when; then
  48. If we work with a strong will, we can overcome any difficulty, _____ great it is.
  A. what B. how C. however D. whatever
  49. After the war, a new school building was put up _____ there had once been a theatre.
  A. that B. where C. which D. when
  50._____, Mother will wait for him to have dinner together.
  A. However late is he B. However he is late
  C. However is he late D. However late he is
  51. He will come to call on you the moment he ____ his painting.
   A. will finish B. finished C. has finished D. had finished
  52. ____ difficult the task may be, we will try our best to complete it in time.
   A. No matter B. No wonder C. Though D. However
  53. It was ____ that she couldn't finish it by herself.
   A. so difficult a work B. such a difficult work C. so difficult work D. such difficult work
  语法复习六:状语从句
  一、
  1. Child as she is, she knows a lot of things. 让步
  2. The more I can do for the class, the happier I'll be.比较
  3. He talks as if (as though) he knew all about it.方式
  4. He is such a good teacher that the students love and respect him.结果
  5.I shall go to the park unless it rains.条件
  6. No sooner had I got home than it began to rain.时间
  7. Where there is water, there is life.地点
  8. He studied hard so that he could catch up with his classmates.目的
  9. Since you are very busy, I won't trouble you.原因
  10. Even if (though) I fail, I'll never lose heart.让步
  11. Once you begin the work, you must continue.时间
  12. I will find her wherever she may be. 让步
  13. Now that you've come, you'd better have dinner with us.原因
  14. He was so excited that he couldn't fall asleep.结果
  15. We must do everything as he tells us.方式
  16. India is much bigger than Japan.比较
  17. No matter when you come, you are warmly welcome.让步
  18. As (So) long as you work hard, you can catch up with the other classmates.条件
  二、1. when; 2. as soon as; 3. as; 4. though; 5. Whwerever; 6. because; 7. Since; 8. whenever; 9. Since; 10. because; 11. so that; 12. though; 13. as; 14. that; 15. than; 16. Even if; 17. that; 18. as
  三、1~5 CADAC 6~10 ABCBA 11~15 DDCAB 16~20 DABAD 21~25 CABBA
  26~30 BCCBD 31~35 BACDD 36~40 ADCDD 41~45 CCBAD 46~50 DBCBD
  51~53 CDD

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