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同义句转换的九种类型

同义句转换题是近几年中考英语的一个常考题型,其出题形式通常是同时给出两个句子,第一句完整,第二句中设有几处空格,要求考生填入适当的词或词组,使第二句的意思与第一句意思相同。它综合考查考生的语法、词汇、短语或习惯用语和句型结构等知识,要求运用所学的词汇、语法知识和句型结构填写句子,使句子结构完整、逻辑合理、语法知识无误、意思与所给句子相同。通过对近几年的中考英语试题中同义句转换题的分析,我们发现中考英语同义句转换题主要考查以下几个方面:

  一、运用同义词(组)进行转换

   用同义词或同义词组对原句中的某些词或词组进行替换,注意转换后的词或词组的词形变化要与句子其他成分相适应。如:
   1. That day we could see flowers here and there.
  That day we could see flowers __________.
   分析:答案为everywhere。everywhere与here and there都表示“到处”。
   2. The teacher always takes good care of the children in the school.
   The teacher always_______ ______the children well in the school.
  分析:答案为looks after。take good care of与look after…well都表示“好好照顾”。

  二、运用反义词(组)的否定式进行转换

  即用反义词或词组的否定式表达与原句相同的意思,主要考查学生对反义词(词组)的积累和换位思维的能力。如:
   1. It’s clear that this visit is different from last time.
  It’s clear that this visit is not the___ ___last time.
   分析:答案为same as。be different from意为“与……不同”;the same as意为“与……相同”,其否定式与be different from同义。
  2. I think wealth is less important than health.
   I ___ think wealth is ___ important than health.
  分析:答案为don’t,more。less important的意思是“没有(不及)……重要”;more important的意思是“(比)……更重要”,该结构与not连用,则表示“不比……更重要”。
   另外,有的反义词即使不与否定词连用,而只需改变句子结构也可构成同义句。如:
   He lent some money to his friend.
   He friend ___ some money ___ him.
   分析:答案为borrowed,from。borrow…from意为“向……借……”;lend…to意为“把……借给……”。两个结构意思相反,但若变换“借出者”与“借入者”的位置,则可转换为同义句。

   三、运用不同语态进行转换

  即运用主动语态与被动语态的变化来转换同义词,但此时要特别注意时态、动词一致性。如:
  1. Everyone should give back his library books on time.
   Library books should____ ____ ____ on time.
  分析:答案为be given back。被动句中含有情态动词should,因此助动词用be。
   2. It is widely accepted that more people use computers in the world today.
  Computers ____ widely ___ in the world today.
  分析:答案为are,used。computers是复数名词,助动词用are。

  四、非延续性动词与延续性动词的相互转换

  即非延续性动词与延续性动词进行转换,此时往往会涉及时态的变化。如:
   1. The manager left two hours ago.
  The manager _____ ____ ____ for two hours.
  分析:答案为has been away。leave为非延续性动词,不能与for two hours这样的一段时间连用,而改成be away这样的延续性动词后,则可连用一段时间。
  2. The film began five minutes ago.
  The film has been _____ _____ five minutes.
  分析:答案为on for。has been提示时态是现在完成时态,“for+时间段”表示“持续(一段时间)”,常用在含有现在完成时态的句子里。
  3. Mr Li joined the Party twenty years ago.
  Mr Li _____ _____ _____ the Party for twenty years.
   答案:has been in。短暂动词join,意为“参加、加入(组织,政党)”,不能与延续时间状语连用,与延续性时间状语连用时,将join改成be in或be a member in…。

  五、运用不同引语进行转换

  即将直接引语变为间接引语或将间接引语转换成直接引语。此时还要注意相关时态、人称、动词、状语等相应的变化。如:
  1. “I’ve found my wallet,” he said to me.
   He _________ me that he _________ _________ his wallet.
  分析:答案为told,had found。此题是将直接引语转换成间接引语。
  2. “Did you see her last week?” he said.
  He _______ _______ I had seen her the week _______.
  分析:答案为asked if/ whether, before。此题是将疑问句的直接引语转换成间接引语。

  六、运用简单句与复合句之间的转换

  即将简单句变成同义的复合句或将复合句变成同义的简单句。如:
   1. We didn’t go out for a walk because it was raining.
  We didn’t go out for a walk _______ _______ the rain.
  分析:答案为because of。将原因状语从句because it was raining改为表示原因的介词短语because of the rain。
  2. He was so excited that he couldn’t go to sleep.
  He was ______ ______ ______ go to sleep.
  分析:答案为too excited to。将so…that…换成too…to…结构,原句的that从句为结果状语从句,改写句中的不定式仍表结果。
  3. Now I will show you how to do the work.
   Now I will show you ______ ______ ______ do the work.
  分析:答案为how you can。即将原句中的“疑问词+不定式”结构转换成宾语从句。
   4. You should put them back after you use them.
  You should put them back _____ _____ them.
  分析:答案为after using。即将after引导的状语从句改写为after引导的介词短语。

  七、运用并列句与复合句之间的转换

  即将并列句变成同义的复合句或将复合句变成同义的并列句。如:
   1. Come on, or we’ll miss the early bus.
   ____ we ____ hurry, we’ll miss the early bus.
   分析:答案为If,don’t。if引导条件状语从句。
  2. The man gave us a talk last week. Now he will give us another talk this week.
   The man _____ gave us a talk last week _____ _____ us another talk this week.
  分析:答案为who/ that,will give。who/ that gave us a talk last week为定语从句,修饰先行词the man。

  八、运用关联连词连接或合并句子

  即运用关联连词both…and…,neither…nor…,either…or…,not only…but also…等将两个简单句合并为一个简单句。此时要注意的是,both…and…连接两个主语时,谓语总是用复数,而neither…nor…,either…or…,not only…but also…连接两个主语时,谓语动词通常应与靠近的主语保持一致。如:
   1. Tom can’t speak Japanese well and Jim can’t, either.
   ______ Tom ______ Jim can speak Japanese well.
  分析:答案填Neither,nor。neither…nor…表示“……和……(两者)都不”,刚好与原句的两个否定结构的意思相吻合。
  2. Alice has read the book and Peter has read it, too.
   ______ Alice ______ Peter have read the book.
  分析:答案为Both,and。both…and…的意思是“……和……(两者)都”。
  3. This store sells men’s shoes, and it also sells men’s clothes.
  This store sells ______ ______ men’s shoes ______ ______ men’s clothes.
   分析:答案为not only,but also。表示“不仅……而且……”之意。

  九、利用某些典型句式或结构进行转换

  这类典型结构如so…that…,too…to…,enough to,not…until…,so do I等。如:
   1. Jim wants to go boating and his parents want to go boating, too.
   Jim wants to go boating, and ______ ______ his parents.
   分析:答案为so do。句意为“……他的父母也一样(一样想去)”。
  2. John went to bed after he finished his homework.
  John ______ go to bed ______ he finished his homework
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